Reduction in Operating Cost, Improvement in Productivity
1. Product or Service Description
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Services for energy efficiency are applied to industrial, commercial, data centers and institutional facilities using the whole buildings approach.
Each of the following systems usually experiences unnecessary loss of energy:
A)The cables and transformers supplying power to electrical systems with the following components: (a) lighting systems (due to the ballasts),
(b)computers, peripherals, copiers, printers, faxes, (c) rectifiers for chemical, metal, food processing, (d) motors and variable speed drives in HVAC and production equipment, (e) automation systems, and (f) other production,
processing, and environmental equipment
B)motors supplying power to pumps in pneumatic and hydraulic systems where leaks exist.
C)Cooling or heating or processing fluids - this could be enhanced through
cogeneration or geothermal systems
The energy loss can be identified using scientifically sound principles. Energy cost reductions can be developed by applying particular techniques and products for each type of process
or load. Simple payback (SP), Return on Investment (ROI), or Life Cycle Costing (LCC) can then be used to evaluate the financial viability for the client to optimize the trade-off of first cost and avoided costs. The energy
considered could be electrical or thermal, and other utilities such as water and sewer can also be ascertained, especially since they are all out of pocket charges.
The approach, solutions, and procedures we have
developed can provide for not only a reduction in current operating costs, but also a reduction in downtime, reduction in maintenance, and reduction in lost work in the case of industrial processes. They can also provide an
increase in facility reliability/uptime. Generally, a return on investment of 2 - 3 years can be expected for industrial facilities such as factories; and 3 - 5 years for commercial/institutional buildings. Energy cost savings,
accumulated from implementation of a variety of measures, can occur in the range of 5%-25%.
2. Description of Goals and Objectives
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The end objectives of this effort are to have a marketing program in place for selling and installing electrotechnologies which will reduce end user KW and KWH,
and at the same time assist in reducing operating problems at the facility due to electrical problems caused by harmonics and other dirty power.
3. Description of Critical Activities and Elements
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Critical Activities - A 4 step process to estimate, forecast, measure, design, install, and verify a solution.
Step 1 - Feasibility Study. This step requires collection of one years utility bills, determination of shift schedules and key equipment operating schedules, obtaining critical equipment inventory and operating data for such
(could involve transformers, motors, variable speed drives, copiers, computers, lighting systems, chillers, air handlers, and other large electrical users. The one line diagram and associated wiring configuration is also needed.
Step 2 - Contract for Study. A contract for on site analysis including measurements which is refundable if a solution is implemented by the developer on a turnkey basis. Measurements include voltage, current, power, reactive power,
distortion at harmonic frequencies. Such data is collected for critical loads. Other electrical data is collected on transformer specifications and cable lengths. Other items as appropriate would include light levels, and associated
HVAC and manufacturing processes, with the purpose of optimizing fuel consumption.
Step 3 - Summary report / proposal. This would show the analysis results anddetailing the power losses before and after recommended system improvements in efficiency, determination of return on investment, or life cycle costing for
each various option for system improvement.
Step 4 - Implementation Contract. Contract established to design, procure,, permit, install, and perform M&V (monitoring and verification) on the improvements. For example, improvements in the following would be covered. (1) Power
factor (KVAR) in cables, transformers (2) harmonics losses in cables, transformers (3) Power reduction in loads such as lighting, (4) Voltage improvements, which reduce operating current losses in cables and transformers, contactors, and
switches, (5) Cogeneration system improvements, (6) ventilation, air conditioning improvements reducing motor / drive power, (7) Use of geothermal or renewable energy when applicable, (8) Emergency power specifications, with loads allocated.
Funding considerations considerations can be made via four approaches, 1) direct purchase, 2) staged implementation, 3) program leasing, 4) performing contracting, covering a fixed period of time.
4. Description on how Product / Service Saves Electricity
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Optimizing losses of energy (thermal losses) by process optimization. For example: Canceling harmonics with active or passive methods; canceling voltage imbalance,
power factor, eliminating system resonances, recovering wasted heat from exothermic reactions such as combustion, optimizing operating voltage for lighting systems and rectifier systems reducing electromagnetic and radio interference emission and
sensitivity of equipment controllers and actuators.
Electrical Efficiency Issues: Harmonics, skin effect, proximity effect, and eddy currents are all different forms of interactions in cables, transformers, and contactors which cause excessive heat and the loss of power in the medium
transporting the energy to do the work. The above affects are caused by waveform changes created by the circuits which utilize the electric current at the loads under consideration. Eliminating the waveform distortions, the energy becomes a single
frequency (i.e. 60 Hz.) so that only one energy frequency is causing waste heat instead of multiple energy frequencies.
5. Reduction in Operating Cost, Improvement in Productivity
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Reducing operating costs - economics and additional benefits.
- Maintenance costs; increased life of motors, heating elements, rectifiers, capacitors, transformers, and ballasts
- System reliability - computer malfunctions / freeze-ups reduced / eliminated
- Production yield increased
- Reduced water consumption when applicable
Power Correction Systems (PCS) is involved in promoting both electrotechnologies and heat transfer technologies which promote energy conservation in industry. In addition to the
energy cost reduction aspects of some of the technologies, there are additional benefits, such as with active harmonic filters for cancellation of harmonic distortion.
Click on "List of Technologies" to get a brief description of some of these technologies. In some cases, one can not merely purchase a "box" or device, since suitable application of the technology may require a customized solution, which PCS technical
personnel can provide.