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22/WHAT IS "R" RATING? / WHAT IS K" RATING?
The "K" value is the most important value in finding heat conduction before finding the "R" rating
The "R" value is simply the reciprocal of the "K" value.
Why are the values assigned to Fiberglass or any batt type or non-radiant blocking "insulation" material missing the third part of the three components (convection, conduction and radiation) that make an insulation material valid?
There is a reason that the people in responsible positions making the decisions on insulation are completely confused on true insulation values and the truths about fiberglass. Since the middle to late 70's, the fiberglass manufacturers (Owens Corning) made a point to establish formulas and work the numbers to convince engineering, architect groups including the public that this new product was the answer to insulation by using their own newly derived numbers to prove the worth.
Fiberglass is missing the radiation part, which is significant. fiberglass would be fine provided that the `air trapping' function of fiberglass is not degraded. Unfortunately, the `air trapping' function is easily degraded by tear, moisture, and air void inside the wool pack, thus making the formula invalid. fiberglass can become non-ideal very easily in the real world from moisture, mold and mildew accumulation.
Since the formulas and calculations are not generally known to the industry and sponsored by unknown theories and respected engineers with high-level degrees, no one is actually questioning the concept. After years of pushing this faulty concept, the concept of fiberglass being an insulator and the R value a real world number, were accepted without question in the minds of decision makers throughout government, industry, city regulations and in the Universities. Due to this, there is little doubt we have encountered resistance from all these groups when we develop an insulation product that includes all three heat transfer components and in doing so exposes the inherent deficiency in the insulation concepts established by the fiberglass industry.
The fiberglass concept is not entirely wrong but it is limited by the missing radiation part. Another real misconception of formula, it is with foam insulation where a laminated foil sheets are used between pieces of foam material. The intent is to reflect the radiation. But in this case, all heat reaching the foil
barrier is conductive and passes straight through making the barrier useless. The situation gets worse because the foil is in close contact with the material by lamination.
Fiberglass is an `air trapper'. Air is a very good insulator with a "K" value of only .16. The "K" value given for air describes the amount of heat which will travel directly through perfectly still, and dry, air. However, air used as an insulator never stays completely still. Instead it sets up an active circulation as one side of the containment chamber is heated. The heated air rises and the cold air falls. This circulation constantly exposes the colder air to the warm wall, thus increasing the delta T across that wall and greatly increases the rate of heat transfer through the chamber. This is where traditional insulation helps. In these materials the air is "trapped" on a great many small chambers called "cells". While each cell still sets up its own convection current, heat transfer is reduced in direct proportion to the size of the cell. The smaller the cell. the greater the reduction in convection.
The resistance from government and industry comes more from health hazard than from insulation effectiveness. This is not to say the insulation effectiveness is fine. It is not. Once installed, no one thinks about it again.
We will now expose the facts, see the truth in the arguments and look at the actual numbers established by the early formulas and how they are badly flawed by completely ignoring the third component of heat transfer. This concept was engineered on the fact that the parts of the heat transfer formula that could not fit into the formulas for fiberglass were simply ignored because the material could not and did not perform this important part of heat control and thus in effect ignored the idea that this third component was important at all to heat control and insulation. Oddly enough, this was accepted over time.
They didn't ignore radiation. They just didn't have a means of accounting for radiation. It was supposed to be an `inside' insulation (not exposed to atmosphere).
The entire heat transfer concepts of involving conduction (thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, effective conductivity, etc.), convection (heat transfer coefficient for forced convection, natural convection, etc.), and radiation (emissivity, reflectivity, diffusivity, etc.) are not that complicated once the people involved in this understand the fundamentals of the heat transfer concept at its root. There is no myth in fiberglass Heat Transfer calculations. It is fairly simple because the third component of heat transfer was thrown out to determine the "R" value only because fiberglass cannot reflect. This alone reduces its validity in the total calculation of heat transfer.
The Birth of the R rating:
The "R" rating concept was developed specifically for the fiberglass material by Owens Corning in the middle to late 70's in order to explain why the thickness was needed for fiberglass to work as an insulation material. The "R" rating is only used in the U.S. because the rest of the world uses the "K" factor value of how many BTU's are transferred through a material per sq.ft. per hour per F. The "R" rating is a result of the calculation after the "K" value is determined. The "K" value must be known before any "R" value can be determined. The "K" value is the single most important value or number to be determined in finding insulation values of any material claiming to perform insulation.
We understand that Thermal conductivity is the measurement of the speed at which heat travels through a material through conduction. In the United States thermal conductivity (also referred to as the "K" value) is commonly expressed in terms of the number of BTUs of heat which will travel through one sq. foot of material which is one inch thick when there is one degree F temperature difference across the material (ie. Delta T). This expression is often stated as Btu/in/hr/sq.ft/F. The lower the "K" value the better the thermal insulation. The term "R" value is frequently used to describe the performance of insulation materials. The "R" value is simply the reciprocal of the "K" value. Therefore., the higher the "R" value, the better the insulation quality.
Terminology used for heat transfer and how it applies:
Emittance is defined as the total energy emitted per second per unit area. The units of radiant emittance are watt/m2. High emmitance gives off more heat than low emmitance.
Emissivity is defined as the ratio of the radiant emittance of the body to the radiant emittance of the perfectly black body. The value of emissivity for perfectly black body is equal to one and for all other bodies the value of emissivity is always less than one.
Surface emissivity is affected by several variables, the most important of which are the geometric shape of the blackbody, the blackbody temperature, the surface emissivity and wavelength dependence.
Additional refinements to the term "emissivity" may be made by defining it in terms of the wavelength of interest, changes due to temperature affects, etc. The simple concept of emissivity can very quickly become a very complex topic!
Mirror may reflect 98% of the energy, while absorbing 2% of the energy.
Blackbody surface will reverse the ratio, absorbing 98% of the energy and reflecting only 2%.
In real life, emissivity is in the range 0.8-0.9. This is because non-ideal surfaces get all sort of shapes, dirt, scars, colors, etc. All these contribute to make the surface's emissivity go up.
The rougher a surface, the higher the emittance. Inversely, the smoother a surface, the lower the emmitance. As an example, bare metal has a very low emmitance. When it is oxidized, its emmitance jumps up significantly. MULTICERAMICS has very high reflectivity and very low emissivity, This is an important point, the MULTICERAMIC Coatings which give a very high reflective values and does not allow heat buildup giving the mirror effect.
We need to understand that Fiberglass is an "air trapper". The glass wool traps air and that is all it does. As the fiberglass is more than 90% air, and the air moves around inside the fiberglass by natural convection, temperature tends to averages out in all directions.
So if you stick in a T/C, Thermometer, or RTD, in a fiberglass pack, all it does is to measure the bulk air temperature surrounding the sensor tip inside the fiberglass. Fiberglass "surface" can not be clearly defined, since you don't know where the surface start and where it ends its all air!. At manufacturing, fiberglass is wrapped with sheets in order to protect the wool and control the wool pack thickness. Measuring the temperature of this sheet is meaningless, it is just a place holder, not part of fiberglass insulation. So in a strict sense, you can not really measure fiberglass surface temperature with a traditional contact-based method. According to one of the participating engineers at the Owens Corning fiberglass lab, they embed T/Cs all over inside to get the bulk temperature and extrapolate the surface temperature that way, which is not accurate.
Even for IR temperature devices, the same dilemma exists for fiberglass as the surface characteristic required to validate IR temperature readings does not exist. Air cannot be a surface! Air is what is flowing over the surface when the temperature is measured.
Taking measurements of surface temperature and why you should be careful of how Infrared devices work and how they read.
Misperception on Heat Transmission
A reprint of recent statements from a major oil company engineering department about their perception of how CERAMICS works and performs. This perception is based in a deep seated blind acceptance of the 1970's fiberglass general concept of how insulation works. These rules of insulation principles developed by Owens Corning are seriously limited as it does not take into account the contribution of radiation, which is the most significant component of heat transfer for insulation.
Fiberglass is not an ideal model to study heat transfer mechanism. Fiberglass is an `air trapper'. Air is a very good insulator with a "K" value of only. 16. The "K" value given for air describes the. amount of heat which will travel directly through perfectly still, and dry, air. However, air used as an insulator never stays completely still. Instead it sets up an active circulation as one side of the containment chamber is heated. The heated air rises and the cold air falls. This circulation constantly exposes the colder air to the warm wall; thus increasing the Delta T across that wall and greatly increases the rate of heat transfer through the chamber. In fiberglass insulation, the air is "trapped" on a great many small chambers called "cells". While each cell still sets up its own convection current, heat transfer is reduced in direct proportion to the size of the cell. The smaller the cell., the greater the reduction in convection.
Most heat transfer study for fiberglass is done experimentally using average quantity of temperatures and heat transfer rates. The measured values of heat transfer often reflect the values of air than fiberglass.
The fiberglass wrapper also plays a role here. Its function is to contain the fiberglass at a certain thickness. Depending on how it is squashed or pulled, its thickness varies. So there is no definite and reliable thickness one can use. Besides the wrapper material itself affects the heat transfer mechanism significantly. If measurements are made on the surface of fiberglass wrapper, the wrapper thermal properties, thickness, and how it bonds with Fiberglas all affect the results. Another problem is the degradation of the 'air trapping' function of fiberglass. During installation and in the actual usage, fiberglass wrapper is torn and allows the outside air and moisture migrates into the fiberglass wool pack. This not only invalidates the insulation standard established by the manufacturer but also makes the actual insulation performance seriously degraded. As an example, a small amount of moisture or externally induced air pocket can cut down fiberglass' R-value by more than 50% easily.
All these facts seriously affect the validity of any kind of heat transfer studies conducted with fiberglass sample. They skew all of the understanding about any insulation material and the standards based on limited facts of heat transfer. Since fiberglass cannot reflect and has no ability to resist radiation, the principles established for heat transfer are limited. Most all insulation guidelines are currently build on fiberglass claims and calculations. These claims are short sighted, disputed and can easily be shown invalid.
The R value should be abolished and replaced with the S value Stopping heat transfer not just Resisting it.
The R-value is a number supposed to indicate a material's ability to resist heat loss. In reality, it is not. R-value by itself is a meaningless number. It does not represent the effectiveness of insulation. It was solely designed for fiberglass.
Fiberglass is an `air trapper'. If high wind blows over it, the air can not be trapped, so R-value goes to zero. A fiberglass insulation having an R-value of 25 placed in an attic not properly sealed will allow the wind to blow through it as if there were no insulation. If it is immersed in water, R-value goes to zero. R-value is not even remotely part of the real world.
Then what is R-value? R-value?. It is simply defined as R=1/(kA/d)=d/(kA). Since U=k/d, R=1/(UA)
British Unit (US)Metric Unit (Europe)K: Thermal conductivityBtu inch/hr sq.ft FW/cm Kd: Insulation thicknessinchcmU: Conductance (Transmittance)Btu/hr sq.ft FW/ HYPERLINK http://sq.cm sq.cm KA; Cross sectional areasq.ft HYPERLINK http://sq.cm sq.cmR: Thermal resistance (R-value)hr OF/BtuK/WPlease note that the actual number for R value is totally different depending on which units are used. It must be defined with units. As far as the units are consistent, it really doesn't matter what terminology we use. As an example, conductance is same as transmittance. But if you want to see whether people who use these words actually mean the same thing, you can check the units and see whether they are consistent. The same goes for K-value or ? (Lambda) value. If units are converted from British to metric units, we can easily see that it is the same thing.
R-Value is geometry and thickness dependent
R-value is directly proportional to thickness and inversely proportional to conductivity and cross area. This means that R-value depends not only on material but also on geometry. Therefore, if fiberglass insulation is squashed or flattened to 10% of its original thickness, the corresponding R-value is proportionally cut down to 10%.
R-value is as well cross-sectional area dependent
Usually most of the R-value lab test is conducted in a way that the insulation thickness is much less than its width or length. This is necessary to make the heat transfer one-dimensional. That is why the unit of thermal conductivity is often expressed in (Btu inch/hr sq.ft F) instead of (Btu/hr ft F), the cross-sectional area is in (sq.ft) and thickness is in (inches). If the insulation width or length retains the same order of magnitude as the thickness, the heat transfer becomes two-dimensional. Therefore a lab test based on one-dimensional heat transfer becomes useless and misleading.
Using R-value as a material property without consideration of geometry (cross-sectional area and thickness) changes is irrelevant. In addition, the R-value for fiberglass heavily depends on air convection and presence of moisture as we will describe next.
ASTM R-test was designed by a committee to give us measurement values that hopefully would be meaningful. However, the test does not account for air movement (wind) or any amount of moisture (water vapor). In other words, the test used to create the R-value is not a real world conditions. If a fiberglass is assigned an R.-value of 3.5, it can achieve this R-value if tested in an absolute zero wind and zero moisture environment. And zero wind and zero moisture conditions do not exist anywhere in the world Fiberglass decreases its R value with as little as 1% ambient moisture. Even small amounts of moisture will cause a dramatic drop in fiber insulation's R-value. To avoid moisture problem, a vapor barrier may be used for fiberglass on warm side. However, seasonal change would switch the warm side around. If you put vapor barriers on both sides, however, it can make things worse. This is because moisture migrated through any tears in the barrier would be forever trapped inside the fiberglass, this will dramatically reduce the R value and can cause mold and mildew trapping causing serious health problems.
Air ventilation is another problem. Within fiberglass, air trapped in there continuously rotates by natural convection within many fiberglass cells. This convection problem becomes serious when a fiberglass is laid horizontally, e.g. on the floor of an attic. The convection is now generated by vertical temperature difference across fiberglass thickness. As hot air always rises vertically and then circulates back, this tendency will accelerate the convection through the fiberglass. If you
use a barrier to prevent this convection, then it will trap water vapor and creates a condensation problem. The condensation problem will then cut down R-value drastically. At the same time, it will cause molds to develop and damage wooden structures.
MULTICERAMICS reflects more than 90% of solar radiation. This ability alone is sufficient to beat fiberglass as the most effective heat barrier. Debating the effectiveness of conduction heat transfer with R-value for the remaining 10% of energy input into a building is not even worth considering. R-value comparison without taking real-world conditions into account is totally meaningless.
MULTICERAMICS prevent air penetration, water, and moisture, and in metal structures will not allow corrosion to develop under it. MULTICERAMICS will bond tightly to the surface preventing the passage of moisture, and atmospheric conditions and will prevent these from affecting the surface. In all fiberglass wrapped pipes found in industrial or petrochemical plants, the pipes are all corroded when the fiberglass is removed. Fiberglass breaths the air, moisture and conditions into the air pockets and holds this mixture causing the surface of the pipes walls, HYPERLINK http://etc.to etc. to corroded in a short amount of time. From industry testing, 1% of moisture in fiberglass will kill 35% of it's effectiveness. 1% can be introduced just by breathing on it. Most climates range from 40% to 80% humidity and given the ability to absorb this moisture, the fiberglass is worthless in a matter of days. It should be remembered also that the fiberglass "R" value is established at 75 degrees F. In explanation as to why it was tested and certified at only the 75 degree temperature, the labs said that it is called standardization. Owens Corning and ASTM decided when the tests were first developed that the material could be tested at one temperature and projected to all climates. This is totally false as related from the labs that do the testing. If the temperature is more than or less than 75 degrees F, the fiberglass reduces greatly in effectiveness. But this fact is not related to the industry and the "R 19" value stamped on the roll of 6 inch fiberglass is totally incorrect in any atmosphere or temperature other than 75 degrees F and zero % humidity, this is absolutely ridiculous.
Thermal Resistance Calculation One dimensional heat conduction with insulation of 1 sq.ft cross sectional area with 3 varying insulation thicknesses: one (0.01"), two (1.0"), and three (10").
Definition:
British Unit(US)Metric Unit (Europe)k: Thermal conductivityBtu inch/hr sq.ft FW/cm Kd: Insulation thicknessinchcmU: ConductanceBtu/hr sq.ft FW/ HYPERLINK http://sq.cm sq.cm KA; Cross sectional areasq.ft HYPERLINK http://sq.cm sq.cmR: Thermal resistancehr OF/BtuK/WThermal Resistance Calculation based on BTU Units
k = 4.1628 (Btu inch/hr sq.ft F)
U=k/d=4.1628 (Btu inch/hr sq.ft F)/d (inches):
d= 0.01": U=416 (Btu/hr sq.ft F)
d=1": U=4.16 (Btu/hr sq.ft F)
d=10": U=0.416 (Btu/hr sq.ft F)
If A= 1 sq. ft, then, R=1/(UA) gives:
d=0.01": R=1/{416 (Btu/hr sq.ft F) *1.0 (sq.ft)}=0.0024 (hr F/Btu) d=1.0": R=1/{4.16 (Btu/hr sq.ft F) * 1.0 (sq.ft)}=0.24 (hr F/Btu) d=10": R=1/{0.416 (Btu/hr sq.ft F) * 1.0 (sq.ft)}=2.4 (hr F/Btu)
Thermal Resistance Calculation based on Metric Units
k= 0.006 (W/cm K) (or =W cm/ HYPERLINK http://sq.cm sq.cm K)
U=k/d=0.006 (W/cm K) /d (cm):
d=0.0254 cm: U=0.236 (W/ HYPERLINK http://sq.cm sq.cm K) d=2.54 cm: U=0.00236 (W/ HYPERLINK http://sq.cm sq.cm K) d=25.4 cm: U=0.000236 (W/ HYPERLINK http://sq.cm sq.cm K) If A=1 sq.ft=929 sq.cm, then,
R=1/(UA) gives:
d= 0.0254 cm: R=1/{0.236 (W/ HYPERLINK http://sq.cm sq.cm K) *929 (sq.cm)}= 0.00456 (K/W) d=2.54 cm: R=1/{0.00236 (W/ HYPERLINK http://sq.cm sq.cm K) *929 (sq.cm)}= 0.456 (K/W) d=25.4 cm: R=1/{0.000236 (W/ HYPERLINK http://sq.cm sq.cm K) *929 (sq.cm)}= 4.56 (K/W)
Conversion for d=10" (or 25.4 cm) case
R=4.56 (K/W) = 4.56(K/W) * 1.8 (F/K) / 3.412 {(Btu/hr)/W} = 2.4 ((hr IF/Btu)
Conductance (U) is different from thermal conductivity (k)
R calculation involves k (thermal conductivity), d (insulation thickness), and A (cross sectional area):
R=1/(kA/d)=d/(kA).
R value is different depending on which units are used. It must be defined with units (d) R is directly proportional to thickness and inversely proportional to conductivity and cross area. This means that it is not a material property but a geometry-dependent property. Therefore using R-value as a material property (for coating) is irrelevant.
Additional Charts and References:
European R value system is based on the Lambda expression of insulation numbers. Taken from Table 16 of the European heat cross reference chart
1 BTU/in/sq.ft/hour/F (K value) = 0.144 W/mK
MULTICERAMICS K value (0.07) expressed in Lambda. Lambda = K X 0.144 W/mK
Lambda = 0.07 x 0.10 Lambda= 0.007 W/mK Based upon 0.0149" thickness.
European Lambda statistics on standard insulation materials as tested for 1" (2.5cm) minimum thickness:.
Polyurethane Foam = 0.028 W/mKper 2.5cmPolystyrene board = 0.035 W/mK"Polystyrene expanded = 0.040 W/mK"Mineral Wool/ Fiberglass = 0.040 W/mK"Perlite = 0.055 W/mK " MULTICERAMICS = 0.007 W/mKper 0.25 cmThe European R rating chart is a different expression of R value than calculated for the US. Examples:
Above from the listing of lambda values Polyurethane foam is 0.028
For any material having 0.028 lambda value
1 inch (2.5cm) R = 0.89 9.6 inch (24cm) R = 8.57
Mineral Wool is 0.040
For any material having 0.040 lambda value 1 inch (2.5cm) R = 0.63 9.6 inch (24cm) R = 6.00
The chart does not give below 0.020 W/mK to the MULTICERAMICS value of .007 W/mK, and the chart is based on one inch (25mm or 2.5cm) thickness, a calculation can be made to determine the European R value as performed by the guidelines followed above for the U.S. "R" value by reducing the tested thickness of the MULTICERAMICS and find the corresponding European R value.
Following is a reprint of a Comparison Chart for Transmission of heat (Conduction, Convection and Radiation) heat properties: Per inch (25mm or 2.5cm) thickness and one foot square for certain insulation materials. MULTICERAMICS added for comparison based on the comparative tested numbers from laboratory resultsMaterial
CopperConductivity ("K")
2712.00insulation
.000371 inch
("R") Per 2.5cmAluminum (6061)1160.00.00086Aluminum (5052)960.00.00104Lead245.00.004Stainless Steel (316)113.00.00885Glass5.00.20Polyester FRP (hand laid).482.08Polyethylene Foam.432.33Wood (dry).333.03Polyester FRP (pultruded).313.26Glass Wool.293.45Polystyrene (expanded).283.57Cork Board.273.70Polystyrene (extruded).214.80PVC (Klegecell).214.80Polyurethane Foam.175.88Air.166.25MULTICERAMICS.0714.28 (per .25cm) R140 per 2.5cm*Total Vacuum.004250.00Using the standard R=1/K for standard calculation of the "R" does not apply. MULTICERAMICS is applied by 1/1000 inch measurements. Reflectivity Properties
MaterialConditionReflectivityAluminumBright90-95%Anodized45%Oxidized70-80%BrassBright97%Oxidized39%ChromiumPolished92%CopperBright95%Oxidized22%SteelPolished45%Oxidized15%NickelPolished95%Oxidized5%PaintWhite10%Black14% (in this case, a black body can block infrared betterthan a white body because it can absorb radiation.)Rubber6%Water8%
MULTICERAMICS blocks 99.5% IR testing performed in house lab
Repeal Infrared radiation (Long Wave).
California COOL ROOF Program found, heat transfer into facilities of any design were as follows:
UV 3%
Visual light spectrum 40%
Infrared radiation 57%
Note: The information contained in these pages were compiled from many data sources, the engineers and scientists that arrived to these conclusions did so by scientific research and tests performed on the products and substrates mentioned, the reader is to form his/her opinion after considering all available data and is encouraged to perform own testing to verify that the information obtained will suit its own application.
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